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Key Model Framework
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1. Introduction
1.1. About This Best Practice Booklet
1.2. Target Audience
1.3. How to Use This Best Practice Booklet
1.4. Stakeholder Responsibilities
2. Key Model Framework
2.1. O&M Input on Design for New Building
2.2. Asset Information (Documentation)
2.3. Operation Procedures
2.4. Emergency Preparedness
2.5. Preventive Maintenance Procedures / Standards
2.6. Corrective Maintenance
2.7. Maintenance Record Management
2.8. Spare Parts Management
2.9. Addition, Alteration and Replacement (Planning and Implementation)
2.10. Incident Management
2.11. Environmental and Safety Management
2.12. Application of Technologies
2.13. Stakeholder Management
2.14. Information Management
2.15. Structure and Qualification of O&M Team
3. Innovative & Technology Initiatives
3.1. Technology Trend 1: Building Information Modeling for Asset Management (BIM-AM)
3.2. Technology Trend 2: Integrated Building Management System (iBMS)
3.3. Technology Trend 3: Predictive Maintenance using Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data
3.4. Technology Initiatives
4. Industry Standards and Requirements
4.1. Guidance Notes and Codes of Practice
4.2. International Standards
5. Useful Forms/ Check List - Samples
5.1. Schedule of Test Results for Electrical Wiring
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Key Model Framework

2.1 O&M Input on Design for New Building

Design for Maintainability emphasises the importance of timely integration of design and construction knowledge with O&M experience into the project design in order to optimise building life.

Maintainability should be considered, and incorporated into the building system design, ensuring the ease, accuracy, safety, and economy of maintenance tasks within that system. Maintainability refers to the effectiveness and efficiency of maintenance activities. New working practices encouraged, such as Building Information Modelling for Asset Management (BIM-AM), require the involvement of asset owners and FMs to understand the information they require on handover. FMs should be involved during design stage and ensure the information handed over by the contractor fits their specific needs.

2.1.1 General Practice

Design according to relevant codes of practice, guidance documents and international standards on operational management and maintenance of electrical systems. Electrical equipment must be installed to be capable of being maintained, inspected and tested with due regard to safety;
Collect design advice from O&M team on operability, maintenance accessibility and maintainability aspects of electrical installations;
Provide adequate working space for access, operation and maintenance of electrical installations. Minimum clearance space as stipulated in Code of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations (CoP) should be provided for all switchgears. For protective devices and testing terminals for earthing conductor, they should be located at places readily accessible for inspection, testing and maintenance;
Provide suitable lighting in switchrooms/substations for access, operation and maintenance; Suitable ventilation is also essential to prevent development of high ambient air temperatures around the electrical equipment.

2.1.2 Good Practice

Project team identifies key design, commissioning and maintenance requirements for referral by designers, installers, operators and management;
O&M team joins project design team at early design stage of project to provide input on system design ensuring best operability and maintainability of installed systems;
Establish design checking matrix covering operability, accessibility and maintainability for incorporation by design consultants, including design consultants of electrical systems, consultants for other M&E systems;
Determine the arrangement for electricity supply with power companies in early design stage. Special attention should be drawn to maximum demand and the estimated load profile, maximum instantaneous load, supply voltage, security and reliability of power supply, statutory requirements, energy efficiency and power quality, renewable energy equipment, location of transformer rooms and switchrooms, etc.;
Adopt additional standby power supply, e.g. standby generator, plug-in unit for prompt connection with mobile generators, etc., for critical systems;
Provide separate access to the power company’s equipment room;
Determine power distribution strategies based on importance of corresponding electrical system and its associated risk of electrical failure;
Install data collection and monitoring system for new building for online real-time monitoring. Data captured can be used for further analysis of energy usage and electrical health condition of the electrical system; Separate metering should be provided for each individual user group;
Allow for future expansion and addition of equipment in sizing of transformer, switchgear and switchboard.

2.1.3 Best Practice

Design the new building with considerations of life cycle cost of electrical installations, which includes initial project cost, utilities cost, service cost, maintenance cost, replacement cost, etc., and use them to facilitate planning, design, and construction;
Liaise with the power company on alternative power supply arrangement depending on the level of reliability required for specific premises.
Adopt the most cost effective electricity tariff scheme of power companies according to the maximum power demand, general load pattern of the system and on-grid arrangement of renewable energy installations;
Design alternative renewable energy systems (e.g., solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, fuel cells, etc.) to optimise power supply system with consideration of load shedding especially in peak load period;
Maximise electrical system resilience by providing redundancies, interconnections, changeovers and bypass arrangement to minimise impact to users during maintenance activities or power suspension incidents;
Establish in-house design guidelines for operability, accessibility and maintainability aspects with regular review and update;
Uplift health and safety performance in the whole project life cycle of building construction and maintenance by early hazards identification and mitigation since early design stage according to Construction Design and Management (CDM) Guidance Notes;
Adopt Building Information Modelling (BIM) in construction for design visualisation to improve building quality by optimising planning and design, improving coordination, and reducing construction waste and enhancing workers’ safety. BIM can also help to visualise O&M requirements in early design stage.

2.2 Asset Information (Documentation)

Asset Information should be compiled, covering all major items of Electrical Installations in a format that is useful to the FM and Maintenance Service Provider. The information should be placed in readily accessible locations, and updated regularly with:

Any repairs, upgrades, refurbishments, maintenance or decommissioning work;
Updates to assessment information (relating to performance or risk);
Changes in the wider environment (including regulations, responsibilities or ownership).

2.2.1 General Practice

Properly keep certificates (e.g. Form WR1/WR2), as-fitted drawings and other documentations as per statutory requirements.

2.2.2 Good Practice

Retain up-to-date as-fitted drawings, testing and commissioning (T&C) reports, O&M instructions/manuals, and equipment lists showing brand name, model, rating, year of installation, recommended spare part lists, tool lists and suppliers' contacts, etc.;
Establish asset management (AM) information and filing system to administer and update all possessed asset information. Asset management information includes at least the asset inventory, asset risk registers, drawings, contracts, policies, procedures, work instructions, asset operating criteria, asset performance and condition data, asset management records resulted from asset management activities, etc.;
Adopt systematic documentation to properly retain all information. Example of key systems relevant to asset management includes:-
Fault call job card and report for maintaining information such as date and time of receiving and rectifying the fault, information of faulty equipment, cause of the fault, affected service areas, information of responsible staff and stakeholders, etc.;
Log-book for recording contractor's / frontline staff's maintenance activities; and
Records (e.g. fault summary) for measuring the contractor's performance against performance targets, etc.
Ensure all records are prepared and maintained such that they are legible, readily identifiable, retrievable and traceable to the activity or service involved;
Designate authorised person(s) to regularly update any changes in asset information and / or asset register; Implement appropriate control measures to ensure that only the correct versions of records are available to users.

2.2.3 Best Practice

Properly keep all design documentation (e.g. design criteria, room datasheet, design calculations, etc.);
Digitise all asset information with standardised file naming system in a reliable database server for easy retrieval;
Implement computer based asset management systems for asset record and version control, with corresponding workflow for data retrieval and as-built updates, to ensure data validity throughout life cycle of assets;
Streamline interface for computerised asset information model such as BIM or Computerised Maintenance Management System to enable essential asset information to be retrieved from asset information database easily whenever necessary;
Adopt BIM-AM system following the BIM-AM Standards and Guidelines issued by EMSD to ensure smooth handover of as-built asset information from construction stage to O&M stage.

2.3 Operation Procedures

Operational efficiency refers to the lifecycle, cost-effective mix of preventive, predictive, and reliability-centred maintenance technologies, coupled with equipment calibration, tracking, and computerised maintenance management capabilities all targeting reliability, safety, occupant comfort, and system efficiency

2.3.1 General Practice

Maintain and update the following documents in daily operation
Details of O&M team such as the organisation structure as well as name, contact information, qualifications and responsibilities of each team member;
Basic operation procedures of electrical systems / equipment (e.g.switching / isolation instructions);
General safety-related guidelines and training materials;
Lists of tools and equipment, materials or parts necessary for daily operation;
Emergency plan;
Contact list of power company, registered electrical contractors, spare parts suppliers, resident staff, etc.;
Implement general access control
Prevent unauthorised entry into sub-stations or switchrooms;
Display suitable warning notices for sub-stations, switchrooms, distribution boards and high voltage (H.V.) installations;
Keep every H.V. enclosure locked, except where manned;
Keep the access door key for entering the H.V. enclosures under the control of a responsible person and keep a duplicate key in a lockable key cabinet located in the general office or plant manager room of each plant or depot;
Take safety precautions when performing isolation and switching work
Use suitable and adequate personal protective equipment and proper tools in carrying out operation;
Implement permit-to-work system, in which an official form is signed and issued by a responsible person to a person having the permission of the responsible person in charge of work to be carried out on any earthed electrical equipment for the purpose of making known to such person exactly what electrical equipment is dead, isolated from all live conductors, has been discharged and connected to earth (if necessary), and on which it is safe to work.

2.3.2 Good Practice

Maintain the following documents in daily operation:
Standardised checklists for inspection and testing of electrical installations and equipment;
Detailed electricity safety guidelines on electrical work with content including but not limited to duties, definitions, procedures in appointment of Responsible Person and Person in Charge, safety rules, examination of tools and protective equipment, compliance audit, etc. A copy of the guidelines and Labour Department’s “electric shock" poster should be displayed in switchrooms, workshops, plant rooms and control rooms;
Logs of the operation status of the electrical installation such as voltage, current, power consumption (kWh), temperature of switchboard, fault history, etc.;
Guidelines on requirements of uniform with badges and identity cards for O&M direct staff and contractor staff;
Provide induction training and/or periodic awareness training on electrical safety to O&M team;
Adopt system optimisation for improvement on energy performance and monitoring.

2.3.3 Best Practice

Implement quality assurance system such as ISO 9000 to achieve continual improvement in daily operation;
Establish hierarchy of policies, standards, procedures and guidelines on O&M practices with appropriate approvals from competent and responsible personnel;
Adopt appropriate occupational safety practices to reduce human error in carrying out electrical work;
Set up remote monitoring system for early fault detection and reporting;
Adopt risk-based approach to regularly review all associated guidelines and procedures by competent responsible personnel.

2.4 Emergency Preparedness

Building Emergency Preparedness is an effort to connect the emergency planning and response with the building users. The goal is to train personnel in basic emergency response actions, who know the building and occupants and can act as a resource and liaison to the stakeholders and building users.

An emergency action plan should identify all the potential hazards associated with the Electrical Installations, with a personnel responsibility matrix for allocating appropriate resources. The written plan should become an action document, updated according to an appropriate timeframe to ensure accurate information, such as updated contact information is provided.

2.4.1 General Practice

Up-to-date emergency contact list including power company, registered electrical contractors, resident staff, etc. is available;
Up-to-date communication flow between client / user (both administrative and operation), O&M team and contractors is available;
A schematic wiring diagram showing the main distribution system should be displayed near the main switch with rating 100A or above;
A duplicate key for each high voltage switchroom/substation should be available, for emergency purposes, in a key box at a designated location;
At least one exit of a switchroom/substation should open outwards and this emergency exit should be identified clearly;
Emergency generator and lighting shall be maintained in efficient working order at all times and shall be inspected by a registered fire service installation contractor at least once in every 12 months;
The emergency generator should be run once per month under load conditions for a period of not less than 30 minutes according to maintenance checklist or O&M Manual. During this running period all operating conditions should be checked. Following this running period functional tests should be carried out on all automatic and manual starting devices and safety controls. Fuel tanks shall be refilled to full after testing;
Where electrical equipment in the switchroom/substation is required to be operated in case of mains power failure, adequate emergency electric lighting independent of the mains supply and capable of operation for a minimum period of 30 minutes should be provided.

2.4.2 Good Practice

All associated documents such as up-to-date floor plan to show the location of all distribution boards are available in an agreed location, such as security room and/or property management office;
Up-to-date schematic wiring diagram showing the distribution system should be displayed near each distribution board;
Emergency (contingency) plan / procedures and recovery plan are available. The plans should be established by the responsible parties to formulate the appropriate action items to handle the power supply failure due to any cable fault or switchgear fault, such as load shredding procedures, emergency power supply requirement list, etc.;
Specific requirements in maintenance contracts for emergency situations such as response time are available;
Regularly review the spare parts level and ensure that sufficient materials and / or critical spare parts are available on site for quick fix to resume operation;
Training of property management personnel on emergency preparedness and whenever the system is upgraded;
A power failure simulation test circuit provided at the emergency generator control panel should be considered to ease O&M staff in performing emergency generator changeover test where the city main is still in healthy condition;
Proper maintenance and service should be provided to the generator and the associated engineering sub-systems including under-voltage detection, starting battery, fuel supply, cooling, automatic transfer switch, etc., to ensure the smooth start-up, transfer of power and continuous running of the standby generator;
In addition to routine tests which help identify defective components of emergency generator, emergency generator should be replaced based on its service life. According to CIBSE Guide M (2014 edition), life expectancy of emergency generator is 25 years;
If the designed spare capacity of the emergency generator is used up due to additional load connected to the essential supply, upgrading of the emergency generator should be planned;
Maintain escalation procedures for critical incident reporting and decision making.

2.4.3 Best Practice

Annual review on emergency / recovery plan and conduct drills;
Availability of mobile generators with adequate power capacity and cables of adequate length for emergency use;
Digitise reference documents including schematic wiring diagrams for easy retrieval.

2.5 Preventive Maintenance Procedures / Standards

The goal of Preventive Maintenance is to prevent equipment failure caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, through replacing worn components before actual failure. Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, and include oil changes, lubrication, minor adjustments, and so on. Typical procedures recommend that personnel record equipment deterioration upon any inspection to facilitate the replacement or repair of worn parts before any system failure.

The Preventive Maintenance Program must include the methodology and record for all actions that are necessary to maintain the optimal functioning of the Electrical Installations. The required maintenance procedures will be unique to each property and the systems within these facilities.

2.5.1 General Practice

Carry out inspection and testing in accordance with statutory requirements, i.e. Periodic Inspection, Testing and Certification (PITC) in accordance with the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations under the Electricity Ordinance (Cap. 406) and the CoP:-
Fixed electrical installations with an approved loading at places of public entertainment, premises for the manufacturing or storing of dangerous goods and high voltage fixed installations are required to be inspected, tested and certified at least once every year;
Fixed electrical installations in factories and industrial undertakings with an approved loading exceeding 200 amperes, single or three phase at nominal low voltage are required to be inspected, tested and certified at least once every five years;
Fixed electrical installations in premises other than those mentioned above with an approved loading exceeding 100 amperes single or three phase at nominal low voltage are required to be inspected, tested and certified at least once every five years;
Low voltage fixed electrical installation located in hotel or guest house, hospital or maternity home, school, premises of the institutions listed in section 2 of the Education Ordinance (Cap. 279) and child care centre should be inspected, tested and certified at least once every five years;
Electrical work (i.e. work in relation to the installation, commissioning, inspection, testing, maintenance, modification or repair of a low voltage or high voltage fixed electrical installation and includes the supervision and certification of that work and the certification of design of that installation) shall be carried out by a Registered Electrical Contractor (REC), or Registered Electrical Workers (REWs) of the appropriate grade employed by the owner of the electrical installation on a full time basis at a regular wage;
Use calibrated testing equipment for all testing and commissioning;
In order to ensure personal safety of the electrical workers and avoid affecting building power supply in case of electrical accident, the power company's electricity supply should be cut off in carrying out PITC work on main switchboard that is connected to power company's transformer;
Prior to commencement of maintenance and overhaul work, all safety precautions complying with statutory requirements and safety regulations should be taken. All workers shall be fully aware and abide by the safety regulations at the site;
To ensure the electrical work is carried out in a safe environment, the upstream switch of circuit breaker shall be switched off and isolated, and an appropriate warning notice should be securely displayed before the electrical work is carried out. The switch or circuit breaker should also be locked off if locking mechanism is equipped. The circuit/equipment to be worked on should be checked to ensure that it is dead ;
Before entering into any working area where CO2/FM200 gas extinguishing system is installed, the system must be switched from auto to manual mode first for the whole working period. The auto mode shall be restored immediately after the persons engaged on the work have withdrawn from the protected enclosure;
After completion of the testing, inspection and overhaul of switchboards, the Periodic Test Certificate (Form WR2) should be completed, signed by REWs and RECs and submitted to EMSD for endorsement together with associated wiring schematic and test reports. After that, the certificate should be properly retained for future inspection by EMSD.

2.5.2 Good Practice

Establish preventive maintenance plan of the electrical installations and their associated accessories/equipment generally according to the respective manufacturer's instruction;
Carry out regular inspection and scheduled preventive maintenance (quarterly, half yearly and annual maintenance works, etc.) to ensure that the plant and equipment, including switchroom, switchgear and switchboard assemblies, switch, circuit breaker, automatic transfer switch, undervoltage relay, protection relay, heater, thermostat and thermal cut-out, earthing system, power analyzer, digital multi-meter and meter, current transformer, power factor correct device, surge arrestor, cable, busway, battery and battery charger, fuse, cable termination and terminal block, etc., are operating at the optimum and most efficient conditions, with the operating parameters running as designed. Here are some examples of regular inspection:-
Condition survey including visual inspection and functional testing to record the condition of the LV/HV switchgears in accordance with the CoP;
Infrared inspection (thermographic scanning) to ascertain whether abnormal hot spots exist at the switchboard surface, switchgears, cables, busway and other components;
Built-in protection test kits, if available, to examine the operation conditions of the OC/EF protection of the LV/HV switchgears;
Ductor test to ensure that the contacts and joints for switchgears, cables, busbars, system earth as well as contacts and joints for cable and busbars are maintained in good conditions;
Use suitable personal protective equipment so as to eliminate any possible/ potential electric shock during electrical inspection and measurement;
Isolation for the equipment under inspection or maintenance should be carried out by an appropriate authorised person; and permit-to-work document should also be issued before commencement of work;
Keep sufficient numbers of spare parts as suggested by the manufacturer. Regularly check the availability of materials and spare parts to ensure sufficient parts for carry out scheduled maintenance and overhauling works;
Prepare standardised form and checklist for inspection, testing and maintenance of electrical installations (See CoP Appendix 13 for sample test results form and checklist). All maintenance records should be taken and certified by the appropriate officer. The completed form and checklist should be kept properly;
Check and record operation parameters, such as running current and voltage, and observe any abnormal noise or vibration of the electrical equipment, etc. before and after overhaul in accordance with relevant BS/ IEC standards;
Carry out performance test after maintenance and overhaul works; Prepare and record test report including date of measurement, location of equipment, equipment description, all the test results, records of any parts renewed and replaced, adjustments made, clearances measured, defects detected and modification made to the equipment; All test records should be properly entered in the course of testing and all parties should sign the report immediately after the test;
The building owners, Incorporated Owners and property management companies should contact the power company to check for the opportunities of carrying out the PITC, maintenance and overhaul work, which would cause power suspension, at the same time with the power company's scheduled equipment maintenance work so as to avoid repeated power suspensions and hence minimise the disturbance to the building users;
Notify stakeholders in advance for testing / shut down of major plant and equipment; All stakeholders (including REC, building owners, Incorporated Owners and property management companies) should closely collaborate to work out the power suspension arrangement and temporary measures that meet the building operational needs with the aim to minimising disturbance to the building users resulting from the maintenance and overhaul work; For example, they may arrange to suspend and resume the power supply by zones, provide temporary power supply during maintenance or overhaul works, devise a contingency plan to handle emergency situations, etc.; In addition to routine tests which help identify defective components, HV/LV switchboard should be replaced based on its service life. According to CIBSE Guide M (2014 edition), life expectancy of LV switchgear is 20 years and HV switchgears is 30 years;
The upgrading/replacement of LV/HV switchgears should comply with the CoP and General Specification for Electrical Installation.

2.5.3 Best Practice

Carry out electrical healthy check according to the requirements stipulated in the ANSI/NETA ATS-2017, including:
Coordination Studies down to three levels of sub-main distribution boards and the related out-going circuits;
Load-Flow Studies for all branches and nodes in the switchboard;
Harmonic-Analysis Studies for all branches and nodes in the switchboard;
Adopt Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) to determine the most suitable maintenance strategy, such as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), Risk Based Maintenance (RBM), etc., for each specific plant and equipment in the premises as stipulated in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) / IEC standards.
CBM optimises the interval between maintenance and minimises system downtime by monitoring the actual condition of the plant and equipment to decide what and how frequent maintenance needs to be carried out;
Install high-ended power analyzing meters and software for collection of necessary data which allows maintenance personnel to perform maintenance at the exact moment it is needed, prior to failure;
Adopt Power Quality and Energy Management System (PQEMS) for online real-time monitoring of power quality and energy usage. Data captured can be used for further analysis of energy usage and electrical health condition of the electrical system;
Example of parameters to be measured and analysed for CBM: Breaker capacity, power factor, total harmonic current, alarm trend, harmonic distortion in current level, unbalance phase current, high neutral current, current trend, energy consumption, etc.;
RBM prioritises maintenance resources according to corresponding risk of causing a failure of each plant and equipment. Through a thorough risk assessment (5 x 5 risk matrix), the likelihood and consequence of failure of each plant and equipment will be determined and hence the frequency and scope of maintenance activities can be continuously optimised;
Regularly review all procedures / standards;
Regularly update relevant procedures / standards against the latest statutory requirements and latest international standards, maintenance records and fault history by competent responsible personnel;
Adopt web-based / mobile Apps performance monitoring system for contracted-out maintenance.

2.6 Corrective Maintenance

The goal of every maintenance team is to be fast and effective, especially when it comes to unexpected breakdowns of critical plant and equipment, aiming to achieve:

Reduced duration of both planned and unplanned downtimes;
Reduced cost of running a reactive maintenance strategy;
Reduced overall cost of maintenance operations.

2.6.1 General Practice

Electrical work (i.e. work in relation to the installation, commissioning, inspection, testing, maintenance, modification or repair of a low voltage or high voltage fixed electrical installation and includes the supervision and certification of that work and the certification of design of that installation) shall be carried out by a Registered Electrical Contractor (REC), or Registered Electrical Workers (REWs) of the appropriate grade employed by the owner of the electrical installation on a full time basis at a regular wage;
O&M personnel induction training for safety, statutory requirements, performance target and work manner

2.6.2 Good Practice

Establish a reporting mechanism for fault calls to relevant stakeholders including the Owner, Owner's representatives, building management, end-users and maintenance team by the means of verbally or in written form at any time;
Maintain efficient and prompt response to breakdown, emergency call-out or complaint for timely attendance of installation / equipment failure and / or unsatisfactory services. For all situations, the maintenance team should have staff / contractor on site within different defined time periods;
Prepare sufficient tools, equipment (including personal protective equipment) and instruments, with sufficient and convenient means of transportation for the safe, efficient and satisfactory completion of the repair works, especially for non-resident fault call teams for unattended venues;
Corrective maintenance work conducted in non-operating hours to minimise interruption as far as practicable;
Establish Key Performance Indicator on corrective maintenance for continual improvement on performance.

2.6.3 Best Practice

Establish a round-the-clock (including public holidays and under bad weather conditions) fault call centre with hotlines, allowing stakeholders to report system faults;
Develop an automatic control and remote monitoring system to provide relevant information on faults, including pre-alarms, fault indications, fault details, affected areas, etc.;
Notify designated personnel for fault handling through auto-notification from fault call centre to mobile devices by phone calls/ SMS;
Determine appropriate performance targets regarding various nature of faults and handle the fault in accordance with the performance targets, for example, setting different fault response time and fault rectification time for urgent faults and non-urgent faults, as well as for attended venues and unattended venues;
Form an all-time standby fault attendance team, including suitable manpower strength, appropriate and sufficient tools, readily available transportation, to response the faults immediately after receiving fault reporting;
Prepare daily fault call summary;
Prepare fault report with fault description, root cause of fault, action taken, follow-up actions, short-term and long-term measures for record and fault analysis;
Develop a system/equipment database for the ease of record finding, fault analysis, reliability monitoring, etc.

2.7 Maintenance Record Management

Good management of maintenance records is essential for ensuring that a piece of equipment is performing in line with the design specification and intent, and can help to determine its preventive maintenance schedule. It also assists service technicians with diagnosing repeated problems with a plant or equipment. Clear records can also provide assistance in legal proceedings, if ever necessary.

2.7.1 General Practice

Make reference to O&M manuals and follow the manufacturer's recommended maintenance requirements;
Maintain paper records of all maintenance related activities including latest single line diagram, records of tests, testing and commissioning certificates, as-fitted drawings, statutory approved submission document, statutory certificates (e.g. Form WR2 - Periodic Test Certificate), calibration records of equipment, etc.;
Maintain a register to monitor the due date of all testing equipment's calibration and renewal date of all statutory maintenance certificates;
Maintain a list of stocks of spare parts, equipment and other components which are necessary to maintain the safe and satisfactory working condition and operation order of major plant and equipment at all times;
Maintain log book and reports of emergency call / fault attendance.

2.7.2 Good Practice

Set up an efficient computerised register and filing system to administer all statutory certificates, records, drawings, O&M documents, etc.;
Set up an efficient computerised system for logging of equipment maintenance records and fault history for easy retrieval by premises owner or maintenance personnel for review on equipment condition and assisting in fault diagnosis;
Assign designated person(s) responsible for reviewing and updating monthly routine maintenance inspection schedule, emergency call / fault attendance reports, etc.;
Set up a record system able to automatically remind/alert all outstanding/ to be outstanding maintenance and statutory certificates renewal.

2.7.3 Best Practice

Digitise documents and records with standardised file naming system in a reliable database server for easy retrieval;
Maintain and regularly update and review records of maintenance service and fault history;
Adopt a proper file keeping system to keep track of maintenance records for effective retrieval and analysis;
Establish a computer database for monitoring of statutory documents with functions to automatically remind expiry and renewal and ensure statutory compliance.

2.8 Spare Parts Management

Spare parts management refers to a systematic and structured way to store and extract spare parts efficiently for any maintenance activity. A good system should minimise downtime during service disruption and simplify equipment maintenance.

2.8.1 General Practice

Maintain a spare part list for plant and equipment and an updated contact list of spare parts suppliers.

2.8.2 Good Practice

Maintain sufficient spare parts including critical parts / long-time delivery parts for minimising downtime of critical system when maintenance and repair is required;
Monitor the conditions of spare parts to ensure their quality is maintained;
Specify and monitor shelf-life of spare parts and replenish as required, to ensure quality and reliability of parts at use;
Assign designated person(s) responsible for regularly updating on the spare parts inventory;
Store spare parts at dedicated location with designated retrieval workflow and contact list for swift response to maintenance and faults;
Adopt security measures in locations where parts are kept.

2.8.3 Best Practice

Derive the type, quantity of on-site spare parts from fault history, maintenance records, age and criticality;
Adopt a proper inventory control system to keep track of spare parts level and monitor usage with alerts to place orders;
Review regularly with manufacturer or supplier on the obsolescence of spare parts and availability of substitutes;
Conduct review on the dormant stock items to reduce the level of dormant stock and minimise the risk that the items become obsolete with the passage of time and advance in technology.

2.9 Addition, Alteration and Replacement (Planning and Implementation)

This includes the analysis, procurement, and management on additions, alterations as well as disposal and replacement of electrical Installations to meet the organisational long-term objectives.

2.9.1 General Practice

Employ REC to carry the addition, alteration and replacement (AA&R) works;
Conduct alterations and additions works as per users' requirements;
Obtain confirmation from users before works and provide anticipated works programme for stakeholders' reference;
Fulfill all the latest statutory requirements when conducting AA&R works including but not be limited to the CoP and the Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation (also known as the "Building Energy Code" or "BEC");
When the electrical work is completed, the electrical installation must be inspected and tested by a REW before the installation is energised;
Provide all applicable documents and drawings, including but not be limited to design calculations, equipment schedules, as-fitted drawings, testing and commissioning records, work completion certificate (Form WR1) and O&M manuals of AA&R works for records;
Prepare all necessary statutory submissions as applicable.

2.9.2 Good Practice

Identify, plan and implement the replacement works in condition-based approach by considering the system performance, equipment age, fault frequency and spare parts availability as well as any specific law and safety requirements, etc.;
Engage a REC to carry out a feasibility study before carrying out any addition to or alteration of an electrical installation. The owners should consider the future electricity demand to decide whether it is necessary to apply to the power company for increasing the approved loading of the installation;
Establish detailed method statements and risk assessments for AA&R works;
Update/develop equipment and spare parts database, with all equipment schedules and their ages for easy tracking on equipment data;
Review maintenance reports regularly to monitor the condition and performance of systems and conduct AA&R works when necessary;
Develop action plan and contingency plan with users with seamlessness approach for equipment replacement works.

2.9.3 Best Practice

Acquire feedbacks from users regularly to keep track of the systems for developing a user-orientated replacement plan;
Derive a replacement planning mechanism with rolling plan to plan for the replacement works in coming years. The mechanism shall incorporate considerations from equipment age, physical condition, capacity meeting current loadings, failure rate, statutory and safety, maintenance cost, operation and/or energy performance, spare parts availability, design standards, etc.;
Conduct a holistic review on system performance when planning and design the system replacement with the introduction of latest technologies to enhance overall system performance;
Develop standard T&C records and O&M manuals for all AA&R works for equipment;
Digitise all as-fitted drawings, T&C records, O&M manuals and associated statutory submissions for proper records;
Register all the AA&R works conducted for the systems properly for easy tracking.

2.10 Incident Management

Incident management refers to the "the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications operating within a common organisational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents".

When a service is disrupted or fails to deliver the promised performance during service hours, it is essential to restore the service to normal operation as quickly as possible. In addition, any condition that has the potential to result in a breach or degradation of service ought to trigger a response that prevents the actual disruption from occurring. These are the objectives of incident management.

2.10.1 General Practice

Conduct incident investigation and make safe or isolate the affected parts of the electrical installation as soon as possible;
Carry out corrective maintenance by REC/REW in accordance with statutory requirements;
Ensure that work completion certificate (Form WR1) is certified by REC/ REW;
Keep proper records of incident investigation, downtime of system, rectification works, loss of property, recommendations for improvement, etc.;
Report workplace accidents and dangerous occurrences to Labour Department as per the statutory requirements;
Submit incident report prepared by REW when required by EMSD.

2.10.2 Good Practice

Establish an incident management plan to define alert levels, investigation procedures, reporting mechanism, standard incident report form and requirements of investigator;
Maintain updated emergency contact lists of appropriate levels of responsible officers of management staff and related stakeholders according to the pre-defined incident levels;
Specify requirements for emergency situations, such as time for attendance of fault calls and emergency calls, etc.;
Review the conditions of similar systems and equipment to avoid recurrence of the incident;
Conduct necessary AA&R works to enhance the system reliability;
Conduct regular emergency drills to strengthen staff's knowledge to prepare for incident break-out.

2.10.3 Best Practice

Regularly review incident management plan, emergency contact and escalation list, training and drill documents;
Share incident information with all O&M personnel within the same organisation / trade;
Set up a working group or dedicated team to steer incident management, maintain good communication with all stakeholders for improving system performance and reliability;
Conduct review and share lessons learnt from incidents to all related parties and take precautionary actions to eliminate potential problems in other venues;
Establish emergency task-force teams for incidents response;
Recommend critical parts and equipment with long delivery lead times to minimise downtime of critical systems.

2.11 Environmental and Safety Management

Environmental and Safety Management ensures that operations are safe for all building users and

visitors. Building Owners are obliged to implement all reasonable precautions to protect the environment, and maximise the building's life cycle efficiencies.

2.11.1 General Practice

Fulfill all statutory requirements on environmental and safety management.
Under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation (Cap. 59), proprietors or contractors of certain industrial undertakings are required to develop, implement and maintain, in respect of their undertakings, an environmental and safety management system which contains a number of key process elements.

2.11.2 Good Practice

Establish and maintain Environmental Management System (e.g. ISO 14001) and Safety Management System (e.g. OHSAS 18001 or ISO 45001);
Optimise / minimise the use of materials, resources and energy (e.g. electricity, fuel, chemicals, etc.) wherever appropriate, to be both energy and resource efficient;
Avoid the use of environmentally unfriendly materials or equipment and replace aging equipment with more environmentally friendly/safe and energy efficient alternatives;
Utilise and rehabilitate existing useful components of the aging equipment subject to be replaced;
Minimise the production of all kinds of waste where applicable;
During design stage, consider health, environmental, energy efficiency and safety issues to facilitate the building to operate in a sustainable manner throughout its life cycle;
Conduct job hazard analysis and risk assessment on hazardous activities and take appropriate risk control measures to protect personnel;
Provide training to equip staff with knowledge to work safely;
Establish and implement safety and environmental-friendly rules to provide instructions for different working conditions;
Supervise personnel to ensure that safety and environmental-friendly rules are observed, and personal protective equipment are used and maintained properly;
Investigate accidents and incidents including near miss cases to find out root causes and recommend suitable measures to prevent recurrence.

2.11.3 Best Practice

Identify improvement opportunities on environmental (especially energy efficiency) and safety aspects;
Reuse or recycle materials / construction waste as appropriate, e.g. adopt recycled components or equipment for maintenance works;
Provide incentives to contractors similar to Development Bureau's "pay for safety and environment scheme" in government works contracts;
Establish green purchasing plan and incentive scheme to use more green and efficient products whenever possible.

2.12 Application of Technologies

Technologies and tools can be used to lower the cost of implementing and managing O&M best management practices.

2.12.1 General Practice

Adopt minimum market available technologies as required by statutory requirements (e.g. BEC);
Check and ensure that relevant statutory requirements are fulfilled when adopting new technological solutions.

2.12.2 Good Practice

Calibrate tools and equipment as per the advice from the supplier / manufacturer;
Get aware of the latest technologies available in the market;
Introduce the latest available technologies that can enhance overall system reliability and energy efficiency for major replacement works or new installation works as appropriate (e.g. after payback calculation study);
Review the existing maintenance approach and study the possible improvement in quality, cost and time if new technologies are implemented.

2.12.3 Best Practice

Actively review the plant and system specific problems and performance targets and explore technological solutions, e.g. by involving the supplier / manufacturer to provide tailor made solutions;
Share the problem solving experience in applying new technologies with others;
Conduct research and development of innovation and technology applications for continual improvement of O&M works.

2.13 Stakeholder Management

Stakeholder management is a set of techniques that harnesses the positive influences and minimises the effect of the negative influences. It involves systematic identification, analysis, planning and implementation of actions designed to engage stakeholders. Stakeholders are individuals or groups with an interest in the building or facility operation because they are involved in the work or affected by the outcomes. Most buildings or facilities and portfolios will have a variety of stakeholders with different, and sometimes competing, interests. These individuals and groups can have significant influence over the eventual success or failure of the work.

2.13.1 General Practice

Notification of Stakeholders on Service Interruption
Notify stakeholders (e.g. property management company, incorporated owners, building occupants and tenants) on the works schedule of maintenance activities and installation works which involve service interruption;
Implement an emergency plan to minimise service suspension.

2.13.2 Good Practice

Notification of stakeholders on scheduling maintenance activities involving service
Agree with stakeholders the works schedule well in advance of works commencement;
Coordinate with stakeholders on service needs to improve O&M arrangements;
Establish a structured information sharing channel with stakeholders;
Maintain a log book at each installation and keep it at an agreed location for future reference by stakeholders.

2.13.3 Best Practice

Engagement of stakeholders on O&M activities scheduling for addition, alterations and replacement works
Engage stakeholders in scheduling of O&M activities as well as AA&R works as appropriate;
Keep stakeholders informed of the progress of all O&M activities and AA&R works, and performance of electrical installation;
Form a taskforce or establish a communication mechanism with stakeholders to regularly review the needs and measures to improve O&M practices, system reliability and performance.

2.14 Information Management

During the life of the system, the O&M Phase is the longest and most expensive and the information system provides the most value to the organisation in this phase.

2.14.1 General Practice

Proper record of certificates and documentations as per statutory requirements by relevant parties
Keep proper records of certificates and documentations (e.g. Form WR1/WR2 and relevant testing records) as per statutory requirements;
Ensure easy access to the updated list of REWs and RECs by making reference to EMSD's website;
Keep proper records of design documents, as-fitted drawings, O&M manuals and T&C results, if any;
Keep proper records of maintenance activities.

2.14.2 Good Practice

Sharing of maintenance information among different stakeholders
Keep proper and updated as-fitted schematic diagrams at site;
Share O&M information among different stakeholders;
Set up an electronic database system for information storage;
Digitise maintenance related information such as design documents, as-fitted drawings, O&M manuals, T&C results and O&M records;
Arrange designated person(s) for regular updating of O&M information of various systems/equipment.

2.14.3 Best Practice

Common platform for storage and dissemination of O&M information with a view to enhancing the transparency
Set up a common electronic platform for storage and dissemination of O&M information with a view to enhancing transparency and version control;
Set up a common electronic platform for online sharing of O&M related information among different stakeholders;
Enhance data security of digitised information, e.g. by assigning different levels of access rights to different user groups;
Carry out periodic audit/review on the stored records.

2.15 Structure and Qualification of O&M Team

Structure is the people, positions, procedures, processes, culture, technology and related elements that the organisation comprises. It defines how all the pieces, parts and processes work together. This structure must be totally integrated with the strategy defined for the organisation to achieve its mission and goals. Structure supports strategy. If an organisation changes its strategy, it must change its structure to support the new strategy. When it doesn't, the structure acts like a bungee cord and pulls the organisation back to its old strategy.

2.15.1 General Practice

Ensure electrical work is led by at least one REW of the appropriate grade:
Grade A electrical work is electrical work on that part of a low voltage fixed electrical installation that has a maximum demand not exceeding 400 A, single or three phase;
Grade B electrical work is electrical work on that part of a low voltage fixed electrical installation that has a maximum demand not exceeding 2500 A, single or three phase;
Grade C electrical work is electrical work on a low voltage fixed electrical installation of any capacity;
Grade H electrical work is electrical work on a high voltage electrical installation;
Grade R electrical work may include electrical work on a neon sign installation, an air-conditioning installation, a generating facility installation, and any other type of electrical work, or work on any type of electrical installation or premises, specified in the certificate of registration;
Ensure maintenance team / contractor available for on-call services.

2.15.2 Good Practice

Set up an O&M team with supervisors and maintenance personnel with proper qualifications and training;
Arrange designated personnel to oversee and review system/team performance, maintenance activities and practices;
Require Electrical Engineer / Building Services Engineer / Contract Manager to be professionally qualified with The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE) of an appropriate discipline such as Electrical or Building Services / The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) / The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE).

2.15.3 Best Practice

Set up a resident O&M team on shift duty to oversee O&M activities round the clock;
Continually enhance the knowledge and skills of the O&M team, for example, by adopting Continuing Professional Development ("CPD") mechanism;
Set up a dedicated emergency service team for emergency repair;
Provide training for maintenance team on use of BIM
Set up Centralised / Regional Command Centre(s) for O&M activities.
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