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1. Introduction
1.1. About This Handbook
1.2. Target Audience
1.3. Related Ordinances, Regulations and Guidelines
2. Design Considerations
2.1. General
2.2. Solar Collectors
2.3. Heat Transfer Fluid
2.4. Thermal Storage Tanks
2.5. Circulation Pumps for Heat Transfer Fluid
2.6. Heat Exchangers
2.7. Expansion Tanks
2.8. Ancillary Equipment
2.9. Application of Technology
3. Operation and Maintenance
3.1. Factors Affecting System Performance
3.2. Operation Procedures
3.3. Emergency Preparedness
3.4. Preventive Maintenance
3.5. Corrective Maintenance
3.6. Spare Parts Management
3.7. Safety and Environmental Management
3.8. Structure and Qualifications of O&M Teams
4. Record/Documentation
4.1. Asset Information
4.2. Maintenance Record Management
4.3. Information Management
4.4. Stakeholders Management
5. Appendix A:Sample Checklist for Inspection and Testing of Solar Water Heating Systems
5. Appendix A:Sample Checklist for Inspection and Testing of Solar Water Heating Systems
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Record/ Documentation

4.1 Asset Information

The O&M documents should be kept properly and updated after each modification. The recommended O&M documents are as listed below:
Action General Practice Best Practice

Handover reports including but not limited to:

Handover list
Site location and location map with access routes
System capacity
Technical information of solar collector (e.g., manufacturer/ brand, model number, type, size, design flow rate, specific output, maximum operating pressure, heat loss coefficient, efficiency, tube size and material, etc.)
Technical information of heat exchanger, pumps (e.g., design flow rate, etc)
Warranties provided
Project completion date and the end date of defect liability period (DLP)
Spare parts list with makes and model numbers
Design calculation including the sizing of collector area/storage volume, structural calculation

As-fitted drawings including:

Schematic diagramme of solar water heating system and water supply installation showing all components, pipe size, earthing connection and the associated utility metering points/supply points
Layout plans showing major components such as solar heat exchangers, circulating pumps, etc.)
Structural drawings with Registered Structural Engineer reports
WSD submission and approval record
Certification of Environment Management System (e.g., ISO 14001) and Safety Management System (e.g., OHSAS 18001 or ISO 45001)
Testing and commissioning reports
Operation and maintenance manuals including operation procedures in case of system failure or emergency shutdown and isolation procedures
Schedule of planned examination and testing
Emergency contact list including owner/representative, LPs

4.2 Maintenance Record Management

4.2.1 General Practice

The owner should keep the preventive maintenance plans, inspection/maintenance records of the installations for a period of not less than 3 years from the date of the inspection/maintenance.
The owner should keep the specification, testing and commissioning reports, operation and maintenance manuals of the installation for future reference by maintenance staff.
Records for major equipment replacements (e.g., location and number of solar collectors replaced) and preventive maintenance records should be kept properly.
The preventive maintenance and overhauls records with clear maintenance schedules and procedures should be kept properly.
A sample checklist for inspection and testing of solar water heating system is attached in Appendix A below, which should be read in conjunction with the previous testing and commissioning reports before inspection and testing are carried out.

4.2.2 Best Practice

The maintenance logbook, preventive maintenance and overhauls records with clear maintenance schedules and procedures shall be digitised and reviewed regularly such that the maintenance contractor is able to predict the trend of material deterioration and formulate a project specific preventive maintenance schedule.

4.3 Information Management

4.3.1 General Practice

The certificates and documentation as per statutory requirements shall be kept properly.

4.3.2 Best Practice

The stored records should be reviewed and audited regularly.

4.4 Stakeholders Management

4.4.1 General Practice

The solar water heating system owner or his representative(s) should be notified about:
The schedule of preventive maintenance
When the equipment will be shut down for maintenance and the duration
Updating of emergency contact list as mentioned in Section 3.3.1

4.4.2 Best Practice

The solar water heating system owner or his representative(s) should be kept informed of the progress of the O&M activities and the obsolescence of spare parts without suitable substitutes.
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